Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

About chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the culmination of a series of diseases that compromise the renal function and may ultimately lead to kidney failure and death. Chronic kidney disease is usually associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, for example as a result of diabetes, obesity and hypertension, and the disease remains incurable as existing treatments can only slow down the progression of the disease without affecting the underlying causes. One of the typical causes of kidney failure in chronic kidney disease is fibrosis, i.e., the progressive formation of scar tissue triggered by complex interactions between various cell types, causing rigid connective tissue to accumulate.

The functional role of CPLA₂α in chronic kidney disease and fibrosis is supported by two main pieces of evidence. Genetic studies in mice show that when cPLA₂α is absent due to genetic modification, the animals are resistant to CKD and fibrosis. Moreover, various samples obtained from CKD patients indicate overexpression of the cPLA₂α gene. The latter is a strong indication that the cPLA₂α gene plays an important role also in patients with CKD and fibrosis.

Coegin Pharma has accumulated significant validation data in preclinical models of CKD and demonstrated that the pharmacological inhibition of cPLA₂α-enzyme is similar to the genetic results described above, namely that inhibition of the enzyme results in functional improvement of renal function by, inter alia, affecting a number of fibrotic and inflammatory processes.

Current treatment options for chronic kidney disease include generics, either focused on diabetes management (to prevent kidney complications) or antihypertensive agents. However, these drugs only delay the progression of the disease, without being able to provide actual disease-modifying benefits.

Market overview

Chronic kidney disease is a growing global health challenge that currently affects about 10 percent of the world’s population. The annual cost of CKD exceeds USD 1 trillion, and in view of the ageing world population and the increasing number of patients suffering from diabetes and obesity, these costs are expected to continue to rise in the future. New drugs with mechanisms of action that address the fundamental problems and demonstrate benefit in patients are expected to be able to take significant market shares.